Laser cooling of atoms in gaseous state requires powerful radiation with the
wavelength resonant to an atomic transition and with the line width close to
the natural transition width in order to perform highly selective excitation
of atoms moving precisely against the laser beam. This type of radiation can
be provided by CW single-frequency lasers
tuneable in a wide spectral range. The widest spectral domain is covered now
by Ti:Sapphire and
which are being actively and successfully used in problems of cooling and
trapping of atoms and molecules. Frequency doubling of these lasers with
modern technique of extra-cavity resonant
frequency doublers effectively widens the working spectral range of these
lasers into green, blue, and UV ranges (see also
Tisarius-D laser system).
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997, Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips
for their developments of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light,
Steven Chu. The manipulation of neutral particles.
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji. Manipulation atoms with photons.
William D. Phillips. Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms.
C.S.Adams, E.Riis. Laser Cooling and Manipulation of Neutral Particles
Laser Cooling and Trapping
A.Ashkin. Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles
C.E.Wieman, et al. Atom cooling, trapping and quantum manipulation.
Laser Cooling - From Atomic Clocks to Watching Biomolecules (video form YouTube)
Research groups working with atom traps
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001, Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and
Carl E. Wieman for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute
gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties
of the condensates,
Mark Kasevich. Science and Technology Prospects for Ultra-Cold Atoms.
V.I.Balykin et al. Parallel Fabrication of Atomic Nanostructures.